Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with more deaths than all cancers—and more deaths in women than breast cancer. The Cardiovascular Risk Profile from Doctor's Data reviews a thorough battery of biomarkers to aid in early detection and reduction of risk factors before the disease progresses. The enzymatic activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (PLAC) provides an indication of very significant atherogenic disease activity, inflammation and increased risk for rupture of advanced plaque. Elevated PLAC activity is a very strong predictor of coronary events and CD-related mortality regardless of cholesterol levels.
Risk Factors and AnalysisLipoprotein-Related Biomarkers Total and LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides and HDL cholesterol have traditionally been measured to gauge CVD risk. However, recent research indicates that more focused biomarkers can provide even greater insight. For example, oxidized LDL is plaque-specific and directly involved in accelerated atherogenesis and late-stage atherosclerotic plaque instability and rupture. Small dense LDL exhibits greater penetration into the arterial wall and has a longer half-life as well as lower resistance to oxidation compared to that of large buoyant LDL. Circulating levels of these two markers are: 1. Strong independent CVD risk factors 2. Higher in CVD patients 3. Correlated with the severity of CVD 4. Not correlated with LDL cholesterol levelsIn addition, levels of apolipoproteins A-1 and B, specific protein constituents of HDL and LDL, are also strong indicators of risk.Doctor's Data profiles evaluate each of these biomarkers as well as ratios of atherogenic to anti-atherogenic lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins for further insight.Inflammation Arterial damage is associated with the infiltration of white cells into vessel walls and inflammation, which increases blood levels of two acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein and ferritin. For example, patients with moderately elevated CRP are more likely to develop stroke, myocardial infarction and severe peripheral arterial disease. Although not specific to CVD, analysis of high sensitivity to these two proteins is valuable in a comprehensive assessment of CVD risk.