These two tests are used to determine elevated levels of glucose and insulin. Glucose and insulin are implicated in many age-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke, and are a hallmark of mammalian aging.
Please Note: These tests requires a fasting blood level; therefore, a 12-hour fast is required before the collection of a blood sample
Glucose This test is used to detect diabetes mellitus. It is used to evaluate carbohydrate metabolism disorders including alcoholism. It is also used to evaluate acidosis, ketoacidosis; dehydration, coma, hypoglycemia, insulinoma, and neuroglycopenia.
Insulin This test is primarily used to measure insulin in the evaluation of individuals with fasting hypoglycemia. Insulin levels tend to be inappropriately elevated in individuals with insulin-secreting tumors. Fasting hypoglycemia in association with markedly elevated serum insulin levels is considered the determinate for insulinoma. Insulin is a protein hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is an anabolic hormone that stimulates the uptake of glucose into fat and muscle and promotes the formation of glycogen. Insulin stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation. Glucose, amino acids, and certain pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones (eg, glucagon, gastrin, secretin) stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin secretion is inhibited by hypoglycemia and somatostatin. In healthy individuals insulin is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that is closely controlled by glucose levels. Insulin levels can be useful predicting susceptibility to the development of type II diabetes, although C-peptide has largely supplanted insulin measurement for this role.